[58] Some archaeologists and historians think it was a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti around AD 1000 who introduced a new line of high chiefs, the kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice, and the building of heiau. In 2003, according to state government data, there were more than 6.4 million visitors, with expenditures of over $10 billion, to the Hawaiian Islands. For example, "aunty" and "uncle" may either refer to any adult who is a friend or be used to show respect to an elder. Cook abducted the King of Hawaiʻi Island, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, and held him for ransom aboard his ship in order to gain return of Cook's boat, as this tactic had previously worked in Tahiti and other islands. Compare population statistics about the State of Hawaii by race, age, gender, Latino/Hispanic origin etc. Ethnicity White: 22.7% Black: 1.6% American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.3% Asian: 38.6% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 10% Two or more races: 23.6% Hispanic/Latino: 8.9%. The number of same-sex couple households in 2010 was 3,239; a 35.5% increase of figures from a decade earlier. 108 (5): 1815–1820. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Mixed Ethnicity. Styles such as slack-key guitar are well known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks. Early British influence can be seen in the design of the flag of Hawaiʻi, which bears the Union Jack in the top-left corner. In the U.S., the multiracial population is more evenly spread among biracial white and black (22%), white and Asian (18%) and white and American Indian (16%). Traditional Hawaiian folk music is a major part of the state's musical heritage. A Pew poll found that the religious composition was as follows: Note: Births in this table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. [159] While aikāne usually refers to male homosexuality, some stories also refer to women, implying that women may have been involved in aikāne relationships as well. [111][112], Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.4 million, due in part to a large number of military personnel and tourist residents. Notable professional teams include The Hawaiians, which played at the World Football League in 1974 and 1975; the Hawaii Islanders, a Triple-A minor league baseball team that played at the Pacific Coast League from 1961 to 1987; and Team Hawaii, a North American Soccer League team that played in 1977. King Kalākaua was chosen as monarch by the Legislative Assembly by a vote of 39 to 6 on February 12, 1874. This section compares the 50 most populous of those to each other, Hawaii, and other entities that contain or substantially overlap with Hawaii. [45] Steep cliffs have been created by catastrophic debris avalanches on the submerged flanks of ocean island volcanoes. The Hawaii Board of Education requires all eligible students to take these tests and report all student test scores. Between 2017 and 2018 the population of Hawaii declined from 1.43M to 1.42M, a -0.494% decrease and its median household income grew from $77,765 to $80,212, a 3.15% increase. QuickFacts Honolulu County, Hawaii. [191] Due to the mild year-round weather, tourist travel is popular throughout the year. [122] Hawaii's Asian population consists mainly of 198,000 (14.6%) Filipino Americans, 185,000 (13.6%) Japanese Americans, roughly 55,000 (4.0%) Chinese Americans, and 24,000 (1.8%) Korean Americans. Where cities and towns in Hawaii have seen the greatest increase in it's Hispanic population? Roughly 75% of foreign-born residents originate in Asia. Large numbers of Native Hawaiians have moved to Las Vegas, which has been called the "ninth island" of Hawaii. [89] The U.S. Senate never ratified the treaty. The governor is the only state public official elected statewide; all others are appointed by the governor. These airlines also provide air freight services between the islands. Table 1.03 The Population of Hawai‘i by Race/Ethnicity: U.S. Census 190020- 10.. Race/ Ethnicity 1900 1910 1920 1930 a1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000. a. In 1964, favorite son candidate senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii sought the Republican presidential nomination, while Patsy Mink ran in the Oregon primary in 1972. By 1919, the population declined to an astounding 22,600, due in large part to war and disease. Percentage of the total population. [133], English and Hawaiian are listed as Hawaii's official languages in the state's 1978 constitution, in Article XV, Section 4. According to 2015 estimates, 37.3% of the Hawaiian population was of Asian descent. [129] As of 2015[update], a large proportion of Hawaii's population have Asian ancestry—especially Filipino, Japanese and Chinese. Kai Kahele represents the 2nd congressional district, representing the rest of the state, which is largely rural and semi-rural. In Hawaii, Japanese immigrants were members of a majority ethnic group, and held a substantial, if often subordinate, position in the workforce. In the 1990s, a group of chefs developed Hawaii regional cuisine as a contemporary fusion cuisine. In 2019, about 13.8 percent of the population in Hawaii was between the ages of 25 and 34 years old. That form was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries between 1820 and 1826 who assigned to the Hawaiian phonemes letters from the Latin alphabet. 2010 . Notable competitions include the Triple Crown of Surfing and The Eddie. Before the coming of the Europeans to the island, the number of native Hawaiians was estimated at 300,000. County executives are referred to as mayors; these are the Mayor of Hawaii County, Mayor of Honolulu, Mayor of Kauaʻi, and the Mayor of Maui. Hawaii - Hawaii - Climate: Hawaii lies just below the Tropic of Cancer, and its mild tropical climate is considered by many people to be the world’s ideal. Hawaii became a unified, internationally recognized kingdom in 1810, remaining independent until Western businessmen overthrew the monarchy in 1893; this led to annexation by the U.S. in 1898. It has four of the largest independent schools; ʻIolani School, Kamehameha Schools, Mid-Pacific Institute and Punahou School. Of all the American states, Hawaii has the most significant proportion of Asians within its territory. O'ahu is the most populous island; it has the highest population density with a resident population of just under one million in 597 square miles (1,546 km 2 ), approximately 1,650 people per square mile. [123] Including those with partial ancestry, Samoan Americans constitute 2.8% of Hawaii's population, and Tongan Americans constitute 0.6%. The Polynesian languages are part of the Austronesian language family. The Apology Resolution passed by US Congress in 1993 is cited as a major impetus by the movement for Hawaiian sovereignty. Hawaiʻi is the only state to have never recorded sub-zero Fahrenheit temperatures. In 2019, 38.7 percent of Hawaii residents were Asian. The legislative branch consists of the bicameral Hawaii State Legislature, which is composed of the 51-member Hawaii House of Representatives led by the Speaker of the House, and the 25-member Hawaii Senate led by the President of the Senate. Drafted by white businessmen and lawyers, the document stripped the king of much of his authority. Former representative Ed Case was elected in 2018 to the 1st congressional district. The percentage growth is the third largest percentage change for any race according to the Census's race and ethnicity definition. Surfing has been a central part of Polynesian culture for centuries. On January 14, 1893, a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders and residents formed the Committee of Safety to stage a coup d'état against the kingdom and seek annexation by the United States. Nonetheless, in Hawaiian language publications its metaphorical meaning can still mean either "friend" or "lover" without stigmatization. The United Nations' Special Committee on Decolonization later removed Hawaiʻi from its list of non-self-governing territories. United States Government Minister John L. Stevens, responding to a request from the Committee of Safety, summoned a company of U.S. Marines. Now the state capital, Honolulu is located along the southeast coast of Oʻahu. Depending on the interpretation, Gaetano's reports describe an encounter with either Hawaiʻi or the Marshall Islands. Other missionaries and their descendants became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to conflicts between the monarchy and its restive American subjects. By Lynn Kawano | July 30, 2020 at 5:35 PM HST - Updated July 30 at 8:34 PM . [220], Hawaii has not elected a Republican to represent the state in the U.S. Senate since Hiram Fong in 1970; since 1977, both of the state's U.S. Hawaii encompasses nearly the entire Hawaiian archipelago, composed of 137 volcanic islands spanning 1,500 miles (2,400 km), which are physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. [229], Political organizations seeking some form of sovereignty for Hawaii have been active since the late 19th century. It is the only U.S. state that is not geographically located in North America, the only state completely surrounded by water and that is entirely an archipelago, and the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. [124], Over 120,000 (8.8%) Hispanic and Latino Americans live in Hawaii. The largest ethnic groups include Japanese (20%), Filipinos (13%), Chinese (10%), Koreans (4%), Vietnamese (2%) and Asian Indians (0.3%). [citation needed] The population of Hawaii began to finally increase after an influx of primarily Asian settlers that arrived as migrant laborers at the end of the 19th century.[108]. Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in 1789. In Hawaii's statehood tenure, only Minnesota has supported Republican candidates fewer times in presidential elections. Official government publications, department and office titles, and the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length.[27]. 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