Thus in 1230 the Curonian king Lammekinus (Lamikis) made peace directly with the papal legate. In 1863, the Russian authorities issued laws to enable Latvians, who formed the bulk of the population, to acquire the farms which they held, and special banks were founded to help them. Friedrich controlled the eastern part, Semigalia(Zemgale), with his residence in Mitau (Jelgava). In the 18th century Russia acquired great influence over the Duchy. Until 1737 the head of the Duchy of Courland was the former master of the Livonian Order, G. Kettler, and his descendants; in 1737, Biron [the favorite of Empress Anne of Russia] took over. They divided the Duchy into two parts in 1596. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia started to exist in 1561 by splitting of Livonia confederation. Courland's elevation never rises more than 213 m (700 ft) above sea level. Liepāja and Jelgava operated as the principal industrial centres, with ironworks, agricultural machinery works, tanneries, glass and soap works. To the north, Courland's coast lies along the Gulf of Riga. The center of the Duchy of Courland was Mitau (Jelgava). History. Apr 2, 2015 - Duchy of Courland and Semigallia - House of Biron The Duchy of Courland and Semigalliaball was a vassal of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthball.He also had colonies. Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , the dukes operated autonomously. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. Bm05169am.jpg 388 × 480; 74 KB. Frederick III Wilhelm von Kettler (1692-1711), Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1698. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was the longest-surviving state in the territory of Latvia during the Early Modern age. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was proclaimed on 8 March 1918 by a Baltic German Landesrat, who offered the crown of the duchy to German Kaiser Wilhelm II. Its Duke, Jacob Kettler, turned the Duchy of Courland into a colonial superpower. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). As a parallel political movement under the German military administration, Baltic Germans began a process of forming provincial councils between September 1917 and March 1918. Courland, Duchy of (Duchy of Kurliandia and Zem-gal’ia), a feudal state on the territory of Latvia, a vassal of Poland-Lithuania. In the 18th century Russia acquired great influence over the Duchy; the future Empress Anna of Russia served as regent there from 1711 until her accession the Russian throne in 1730. On the west it is bordered by the Baltic Sea, and on the south by Lithuania. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918 Bolshevist Russia accepted the loss of the Courland Governorate and by agreements concluded in Berlin on 27 August 1918 the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia and the Governorate of Livonia were severed from Russia.[2]. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. The largest city is Liepāja, the third largest city in Latvia. On January 15, 1945, Army Group Courland (Heeresgruppe Kurland) formed under Colonel-General Dr. Lothar Rendulic. The territories that comprised the Livonian Confederation in the Baltic region were militarily weak and losing appeal. These provinces corresponded to Latvia's four traditional regions plus Riga. [1] In 1237 the area passed into the rule of the Teutonic Knights owing to the amalgamation of this order with that of the Brethren of the Sword. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}56°56′54″N 24°05′09″E / 56.94833°N 24.08583°E / 56.94833; 24.08583, Map of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia in Europe in 1918, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duchy_of_Courland_and_Semigallia_(1918)&oldid=1002163302, States and territories established in 1918, States and territories disestablished in 1918, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Duchy of Courland was absorbed on September 22, 1918 by the, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 04:13. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia existed from 1561 as part of the Grand Duchy of Livonia, and later became a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, when Poland and Lithuania joined together. The German nobles owned the land and serfdom was the rule. It had its own empire.One of its colonies was modern day Trinidad and Tobago. Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of the Order of Livonia, became the first duke of Courland. Media in category "Duchy of Courland and Semigallia" The following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total. With large territories coming under the Ober Ost's administration as a result of military successes on the Eastern Front, General Erich Ludendorff was charged with managing the large area now under its jurisdiction. Nearly one hundred rivers drain Courland, but only three of these rivers – the Daugava, the Lielupe and the Venta – are navigable. The duchy's title goes to the Russian emperor. Hitler refused, and ordered the Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine forces in Courland to continue the defence of the area. The front was settled along a line stretched between Riga, Daugavpils and Baranovichi. Duchy of Courland (1918) During WWI ,Germany planed a protectorate over the Baltic between 1917 (Russia's withdrawal from the war) and 1918 (German defeat).This project was never realised (was not accepted by German kaiser). It was proclaimed on 8 March 1918, in the German-occupied Courland Governorate by a Landesrat composed of Baltic Germans, who offered the crown of the once-autonomous Duchy to Kaiser Wilhelm II, despite the existence of a formerly sovereign reigning family in that duchy, the Biron descendants of Ernst Johann von Biron[citation needed]. On 5 August 1940, the Soviet Union annexed the region along with the rest of Latvia which was made a constituent republic of the USSR, the Latvian SSR. They all flow northwestward and discharge into the Baltic Sea. Flax spinning took place mostly as a domestic industry. Owing to its numerous lakes and marshes, Courland has a damp, often foggy, and changeable climate; its winters are severe. The Duchy of Courland became a focus of strategic interest for both Sweden and … It was proclaimed on 8 March 1918, in the German-occupied Courland Governorate by a Landesrat composed of Baltic Germans, who offered the crown of the once-autonomous Duchy to Kaiser Wilhelm II, despite the existen The Swedes, Russians, and Poles saw the weak Livonian State to satisfy their goals for territorial expansion and economics. Flag of the United Baltic Duchy. Under his rule, the duchy was brought to its greatest peak in wealth and engaged in colonization. The region of Piltene, owned by the head of the Church of Courland, was regarded as the bishop's private property. The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland as they were formerly held by the same duke. Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. With the Third Partition of Poland-Lithuania, the duchy of Courland ceases to exist. The new policy was stated in a telegram from the German Foreign Office to the military administration of the Baltic: The government of the Reich is unanimous in respect of the fundamental change in our policy towards the Baltic countries, namely that in the first instance policy is to be made with the Baltic peoples. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 14:55. Wilhelmine is mainly known for her relationship with Klemens Metternich, statesman of the Austrian Empire. BM01142Am.jpg 307 × 480; 38 KB. Katharina Friederike Wilhelmine Benigna (1781–1839), Princess of Courland, Duchess of Sagan, eldest daughter of last Duke, born 8 February 1781 in Mitau, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia; died 29 November 1839 in Vienna. Wilhelm recognised the duchy as a German vassal that same month. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. It was engaged in manufacturing, producing metal, arms, ships and trading with the whole world. Dorothea (1793–1862), youngest daughter of last Duke, wife of Edmond de Talleyrand-Périgord (1787–1872), nephew of the French statesman Talleyrand, becoming Talleyrand's devoted attendant, political aide, and possible lover. alternate case: duchy of Courland and Semigallia. He accepted baptism, and became a vassal of the pope. It was a vassal state of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later of Poland-Lithuania.It became independent in 1791, but was annexed by Russian Empire in 1795 during Third Partition of Poland.. (The Russian authorities of the Courland Governorate were exiled to Tartu never to return.) The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia started to exist in 1561 by splitting of Livonia confederation. Duchies of Courland and Semigallia (recognized by Poland- Lithuania on 17 Apr 1598). After the October Revolution, the elected Estonian Provincial Assembly declare… Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. He took the name of Jacob II, after the Duk… This article is about the region of Courland, also known as Curland, Kurland and Kurzeme. Wilhelm II. He was a very energetic man, built up a navy of 61 ships and pursued a colonial policy; Courlanders built FORT JAKOB on the Gambia river in West Africa (1651) and another colony on TOBAGO in 1652, attempting to get a share in the African slave trade. It was engaged in manufacturing, producing metal, arms, ships and trading with the whole world. The remainder of Courland is part of the planning regions of Riga and Semigallia (Zemgale). Period of success and prosperity in the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia did not last long, just about a decade. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. The landscape generally has a low and undulating character, with flat and marshy coastlands. [2], On 18 November 1918, Latvia proclaimed its independence. On March 15 Wilhelm II proclaimed the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia a "free and sovereign state", but did not assume the title of the Duke of Courland. Its Duke, Jacob Kettler, turned the Duchy of Courland into a colonial superpower. Resonance. In 1641, JACOB KETTLER inherited the Duchy of Courland. Although it existed for just a short period – till 1582 – it quickly turned into a modern European state. When Gotthard Kettler died in 1587, his sons, Friedrichand Wilhelm, became the dukes of Courland. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. In the 3rd Polish Partition of 1795, It was transformed into Courland Gubernia; Stift Pilten was annexed. The territory of the historic Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became part of Terra Mariana in the course of the conquest of the latter by the Brethren of the Sword in the 13th century. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726. Our government consists at the moment of the Duke of Courland and the Ducal Council which will reign as long as our government is in exile. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. Media in category "Duchy of Courland and Semigallia" The following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total. 75% of the population belonged to the prevailing denomination, Lutheranism; the rest belonged to the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. However, the duchy was absorbed on 22 September 1918 by the United Baltic Duchy. WHKMLA : History of Courland, 1641-1795 In 1641, JACOB KETTLER inherited the Duchy of Courland. Wilhelm owned the western part, Courland (Kurzeme), with his residence in Goldingen (Kuldīga). The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia existed from 1561 as part of the Grand Duchy of Livonia, and later became a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, when Poland and Lithuania joined together. In 1609 he married Princess Sophie of Prussia-Brandenburg. It was a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1562 to 1569 and from 1569 to 1726 the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the last of the ducal line into which she had married died in 1737, she arranged for the Duchy to be given to her lover, Ernst Johann von Biron instead. The Soviet Army occupied Latvia in conformity with the terms of 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 17 June 1940. [2], Kaiser Wilhelm recognised the creation of Courland, as a German vassal by writing to Courland's Landesrat on March 8, 1918 (in German):[citation needed]. The blockade by elements of the Leningrad Front remained until May 8, 1945, when Army Group Courland, then under its last commander, Colonel-General Carl Hilpert, surrendered to Marshal Leonid Govorov, the commander of the Leningrad Front (reinforced by elements of the 2nd Baltic Front) on the Courland perimeter. Throughout the Latvian War of Independence, much of Courland remained a German stronghold. The duke is happy enough to relinquish the title in return for rewards from Russia. The Duchy of Courland became a focus of strategic interest for both Sweden and Poland–Lithuania. On 7 December 1918, the German Military handed over authority to the Latvian national government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis. The chief towns of the ten districts were Jelgava (Mitau), Courland's capital (pop. Duchy of Courland was established in the 16th century as a duchy ruled by German nobility which descended from the times of the Order of Livonia but having a majority of Latvian population. A front was established along a line stretched between Riga, Daugavpils and Baranovitch. Polski: Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii w 1740 roku. There was a small but vigorous Jewish population. From the time of the Northern Crusades in the early 13th century, most land was owned by nobles descended from the German invaders. Courland (Latvian: Kurzemes), officially the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Latvian: Kurzemes un Zemgale hercogiste), is a country in the Baltic region of Eastern Europe.It is bordered to the north by Latvia, to the south by Lithuania and to the east by the Russia.The territory of Courland covers 27,286 sq km and it has a temperate seasonal climate. Partition became nominal from 14 May 1616 when Duke of Semigallia Friedrich became also regent of Duchy of Courland. Knight of the White Eagle. is made up of lakes. The Establishment of the Duchy of Courland:. Courland Governorate, Governorate of Livonia, Governorate of Estonia of Russian Empire before the 1917 February Revolution. After World War I, Courland became a part of the newly formed nation of Latvia, November 18, 1918. In 1558 the Duchy of Courland was established. Courland was no longer an administrative unit under the Soviets but an early Liepāja Oblast, one of three oblasts in Latvia, roughly corresponded to Courland. For other uses, see, Duchy of Courland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1561–1795, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Courland&oldid=990964199, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles needing additional references from January 2017, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no map, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Latvian-language text, Articles containing Livonian-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with German-language sources (de), Latvia articles missing geocoordinate data, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Following Russia's Great Retreat of 1915, Courland came under control of the German Army's Ober Ost commander in the person of Paul von Hindenburg, a Prussian military hero. Maria Amalia of Courland (387 words) no match in snippet view article find links to article Princess Maria Anna Amalia of Courland (12 June 1653 – 16 June 1711) was a landgravine of Hesse-Kassel through her marriage on 21 May 1673 to her first With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of 3 March 1918, Russia's new Bolshevik government formally relinquished control of Courland to Germany. Although the German Reichstag supported national self-determination for the Baltic peoples, the German High Command continued the policy of attaching the Baltic to the Reich by relying on Baltic Germans. The largest city is Liepāja, the third largest city in Latvia. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia 1562-1795. Several objective reasons and circumstances led to downfall and loss of wealth and newly acquired colonies. On 18 November 1918, Latvia proclaimed its independence and on 7 December 1918, the German military handed over authority to the pro-German Latvian Provisional Government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis. Buy Duchy of Courland and Semigallia by (ISBN: 9786130686963) from Amazon's Book Store. Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of the Order of Livonia, became the first duke of Courland. The Duchy of Courland and Semigalliaball was a vassal of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthball.He also had colonies. 35,011 in 1897); Liepāja (Libau) (pop. The most crucial one was the Second Northern War between Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that started in 1655. It was a vassal state of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later of Poland-Lithuania.It became independent in 1791, but was annexed by Russian Empire in 1795 during Third Partition of Poland.. It lies between 55° 45′ and 57° 45′ North and 21° and 27° East. After loss of entitlement to dukedom, he … In ancient times the Curonians, a pagan tribe, inhabited Courland. This exile is due to the inhospitable nature of the territory we claim. BM01147Am.jpg 300 × 480; 37 KB. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Courland region of Latvia that existed from 28 November 1561 to 28 March 1795 and from 3 March to 18 November 1918, with Jelgava serving as its capital. Fruit grew well. Russian Governors of Courland AD 1795 - 1915. However, all this time Duchy of Courland was the point of interest for both Sweden and Poland. [1], In October 1918, the Chancellor of Germany, Prince Maximilian of Baden, proposed to have the military administration in the Baltic replaced by civilian authority. The towns and cities are designated by their German names since the nobility and the Duke were of German heritage. (at1) Although nominally a vassal state, the dukes operated autonomously*wI. When combined with Semigallia and Selonia, Courland's northeastern boundary is the river Daugava, which separates it from the regions of Latgale and Vidzeme. The duchy was formed after the Livonian Confederation was dissolved during the "Livonian Wars", and it was nominally a vassal state of Poland-Lithuania. The region of Piltene, owned by the head of the Church of Courland, was regarded as the bishop's private property. Courland remained part of the Latvian SSR within the Soviet Union following World War II. Internal political partition resulted in a varied attitude toward Jewish settlement within the duchy. Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the dukes operated autonomously. Pro-German forces were trying to reanimate a state-like body closely related to the German Empire. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. Internal political partition resulted in a varied attitude toward Jewish settlement within the duchy. Jacob Kettler (German: Jakob von Kettler; 28 October 1610 1 January 1682) was a Baltic German Duke of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1641 1682). The Livonian Confederation was a loosely organized confederation formed by the German-led Livonian Order and various bishoprics that encompassed much of present-day Estonia and Latvia. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. As Russian rule in the rest of what is now Latvia began collapsing at the end of World War I, Baltic Germans began a process of forming provincial councils between September 1917 and March 1918, competing with ethnic Latvians' moves toward independence. Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia. Latvia eventually signed a cease-fire with Germany on 15 July 1920, and the Treaty of Riga of 11 August ended the war. Although nominally a vassal state of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the dukes operated autonomously. Courland 1561-1641. Photo: Library of Congress. Situated in western Latvia, Courland roughly corresponds to the former Latvian districts of Kuldīga, Liepāja, Saldus, Talsi, Tukums and Ventspils. Bm02211am.jpg 314 × 480; 64 KB. The United Baltic Duchy was nominally recognized as a sovereign state[citation needed] by the Kaiser only on September 22, 1918, half a year after Soviet Russia had formally relinquished all authority over its former Imperial Baltic provinces to the German Empire in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Territory expansion became the new buzzword. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia at the time of Maurice (1740) [Image: grobina.blogspot.com] This is where Maurice of Saxony, a German nobleman, soldier of fortune and lothario, as well as the illegitimate son of King Augustus II of Poland (the oldest of 354 acknowledged with this distinction), enters the fray. On March 8, 1918 the local Baltic German-dominated Kurländischer Landtag (state diet), in Jelgava, proclaimed the reinstatement of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. Gotthard von Kettler (1517- 1587), the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1562. After World War I, Courland became a part of the newly formed nation of Latvia, November 18, 1918. During World War I, Courland formed part of the Eastern Front theatre of operations that saw fighting primarily between forces of the Russian and German Empires. During World War I, German Armies had occupied the Courland Governorate of Russian Empire by the autumn of 1915. Following the February Revolution in Russia, the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia was created on 12 April 1917 (30 March Old Style) from the former Russian Governorate of Estonia and northern Governorate of Livonia. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region.It existed from 1562 through 1795. The majority of them never returned to Germany (Haupt, 1997). Iron and limestone were the chief minerals; a little amber was found on the coast. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a semi-independent duchy that existed from 1561 until 1795, encompassing the areas of Courland and Semigallia. Then, Empress Anna of Russia herself the widow of Frederick William the penultimate Duke of Courland, managed to place her lover, Ernst Johann von Biron, on the Ducal throne of Courland. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia had been created in 1561 by Gotthard Kettler, last master of the Livonian Order, and had been ruled by his descendants until the dynasty died out in 1737. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. Wilhelm II's unwillingness to become the Duke of Courland, coupled with the Reichstag's critique of initiatives to annex the occupied territories, could have dispirited the Baltic … Neither state, however, had any recognition other than by the German Empire. [2], After the Russian Revolution, German troops started advancing from Courland, and by the end of February 1918 the territories of the former Russian Governorate of Livonia and Autonomous Governorate of Estonia that had declared independence were also occupied and fell under the German military administration. During World War I, the German Army had occupied the Courland Governorate of the Russian Empire by the autumn of 1915. They found a man claiming to be a distant relative of the Kettler family that ruled Courland for decades, and being as he was the only relative found alive after Doomsday, he was crowned the Duke of Courland on August 6th, 1985. In 1870 the population was 619,154; in 1897 it was 674,437 (of whom 345,756 were women); in 1906 it was estimated at 714,200. The promise of gain induced him to authorize wealthy Jews to settle there. Bm03115abm.jpg 640 × 503; 125 KB. Following the establishment of the Duchy, and not finding any true claims to the Ducal Throne in the area, a committee was established that would keep a lookout for a descendant of one of the Dukes, with both the will and desire to take the throne. Success and prosperity in the Baltic region.It existed from 1561 until 1795 the... Latvia once more and it remains so to this day, oats, wheat flax! 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