[16] Popular European literature of the time portrayed Muhammad as though he were worshipped by Muslims, similar to an idol or a heathen god. Converts to Islam came from nearly all Arab tribes in Medina; by June of the subsequent year, seventy-five Muslims came to Mecca for pilgrimage and to meet Muhammad. It was on one of these travels that his first tryst with religion and faith happened, through a Christian preacher Bahira, who according to the Islamic beliefs foresaw Muhammad’s future as a prophet of god. He was born in Mecca as a member of the ruling Hashim clan of the tribe of Quraysh. [16], In later ages, Muhammad came to be seen as a schismatic: Brunetto Latini's 13th century Li livres dou tresor represents him as a former monk and cardinal,[16] and Dante's Divine Comedy (Inferno, Canto 28), written in the early 1300s, puts Muhammad and his son-in-law, Ali, in Hell "among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again. [152][153] Watt finds Arafat's arguments "not entirely convincing", while Meir J. Kister has contradicted[clarification needed] the arguments of Arafat and Ahmad. [16] The Arab population of Yathrib were familiar with monotheism and were prepared for the appearance of a prophet because a Jewish community existed there. [231] Modern Muslim authors who calculate Aisha's age based on other sources of information, such as a hadith about the age difference between Aisha and her sister Asma, estimate that she was over thirteen and perhaps in her late teens at the time of her marriage.[240][241][242][243][244]. A Meccan force was sent to protect the caravan and went on to confront the Muslims upon receiving word that the caravan was safe. "[62] Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين), meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and "al-Sadiq" meaning "truthful"[63] and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator. [277][280][281] Later images were produced in Ottoman Turkey and elsewhere, but mosques were never decorated with images of Muhammad. He had thin hair on his chest. 'Awf tribe, had composed verses taunting and insulting the Muslims. According to Ibn Ishaq, this was influenced by the conversion of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (a prominent Medinan leader) to Islam. [279] Concomitantly, some of the unveiled images from earlier periods were defaced. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. [118] Aware of the plan, the Meccan caravan eluded the Muslims. [16], In the same year, Muhammad organized an attack against northern Arabia because of their previous defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah and reports of hostility adopted against Muslims. He was graceful and elegant, with intensely black eyes and thick eyelashes. They were joined by the Banu Thaqif (inhabiting the city of Ta'if) who adopted an anti-Meccan policy due to the decline of the prestige of Meccans. [11][83] Most Meccans ignored and mocked him, though a few became his followers. These were: either the Meccans would pay blood money for the slain among the Khuza'ah tribe, they disavow themselves of the Banu Bakr, or they should declare the truce of Hudaybiyyah null.[170]. [283] Another Greek source for Muhammad is Theophanes the Confessor, a 9th-century writer. [51] He belonged to the Banu Hashim clan, part of the Quraysh tribe, which was one of Mecca's prominent families, although it appears less prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime. [156] Muhammad's marriages after the death of Khadijah were contracted mostly for political or humanitarian reasons. Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia, including Christians and Jews. [...] In his married life, as well as in his religious life, a change seems to have come over Muhammad after his removal to Medina. [84], According to Ibn Saad, opposition in Mecca started when Muhammad delivered verses that condemned idol worship and the polytheism practiced by the Meccan forefathers. This is only done if the person has a second given name. [211][212] For example, according to Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents".[which? Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six. [150] Arafat believes that Ibn Ishaq's Jewish sources, speaking over 100 years after the event, conflated this account with memories of earlier massacres in Jewish history; he notes that Ibn Ishaq was considered an unreliable historian by his contemporary Malik ibn Anas, and a transmitter of "odd tales" by the later Ibn Hajar. However, the Quranic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) (Quran 48:1–29) assured them that the expedition must be considered a victorious one. [48], Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim,[49] was born in Mecca[50] about the year 570[8] and his birthday is believed to be in the month of Rabi' al-awwal. Muhammad surprised various Arab tribes, individually, with overwhelming force, causing his enemies to unite to annihilate him. The next morning, at the Muslim conference of war, a dispute arose over how best to repel the Meccans. Although the original work was lost, this sira survives as extensive excerpts in works by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. Afterwards he resided in Mecca for ten years and in Medina for ten more years. Cambridge History of Islam (1970), p. 30. Al-Hibri, Azizah Y. [160] According to Watt, although Muhammad's decision to make the pilgrimage was based on his dream, he was also demonstrating to the pagan Meccans that Islam did not threaten the prestige of the sanctuaries, that Islam was an Arabian religion. During the battle, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, located to the south of Medina, entered into negotiations with Meccan forces to revolt against Muhammad. [228][229] After Khadijah's death, Khawla bint Hakim suggested to Muhammad that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha, daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca. Meeting him secretly by night, the group made what is known as the "Second Pledge of al-'Aqaba", or, in Orientalists' view, the "Pledge of War". The Prophet was of moderate height having broad shoulders (long) hair reaching his ear-lobes. [159] Upon hearing of the approaching 1,400 Muslims, the Quraysh dispatched 200 cavalry to halt them. He is the best of creation, he is a role model on how to be of exemplary character, kindness, compassion, mercy, gratitude, thankfulness, abundance, courage, fearlessness, self-reflection, and … The clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and together carried the Black Stone to the right spot, then Muhammad laid the stone, satisfying the honor of all. I saw Prophet Abraham pbuh with a face that was not completely round but slightly oval , upside down eyebrows, v hairline , raven black wavy hair and a aquiline nose bridge which was one flowing curve, not a bump then a curve and not hooked or too big or too small . In 613,[10] Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly,[11] proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to God[12] is the right way of life (dīn),[13] and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam. [190][191][192], According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, Muhammad's death may be presumed to have been caused by Medinan fever exacerbated by physical and mental fatigue. [193] Academics Reşit Haylamaz and Fatih Harpci say that Ar-Rafiq Al-A'la is referring to God. [128], Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa, one of three main Jewish tribes,[16] but some historians contend that the expulsion happened after Muhammad's death. The tradition also describes an angel appearing to him and offering retribution against the assailants. [160], Negotiations commenced with emissaries traveling to and from Mecca. Bilal, another Muslim slave, was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion. [5], It is sometimes reported that Muhammad is the most popular boy’s name in all of Britain; however, this is based on combining multiple spelling variations such as Mohammed, but not combining spelling variants of popular British names such as Ollie and Olly. [60] It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. In 616 (or 617), the leaders of Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important Quraysh clans, declared a public boycott against Banu Hashim, their commercial rival, to pressure it into withdrawing its protection of Muhammad. [89], However, there is a completely different story on the reason why the Muslims returned from Ethiopia to Mecca. [16], Among the first things Muhammad did to ease the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was to draft a document known as the Constitution of Medina, "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca; this specified rights and duties of all citizens, and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including the Muslim community to other communities, specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book"). According to this account—initially mentioned by Al-Waqidi then rehashed by Ibn Sa'ad and Tabari, but not by Ibn Hisham and not by Ibn Ishaq[90]—Muhammad, desperately hoping for an accommodation with his tribe, pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah. According to the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia (2000), Muhammad is probably the most common given name in the world, including variations. He asked for a cloth and laid the Black Stone in its center. [248] Some Shi'a scholars contend that Fatimah was Muhammad's only daughter. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni. When they justified themselves by referring to the Bible, Muhammad, who had taken nothing therefrom at first hand, accused them of intentionally concealing its true meaning or of entirely misunderstanding it, and taunted them with being "asses who carry books" (sura lxii. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.[17][18]. [103][page needed], Muhammad's wife Khadijah and uncle Abu Talib both died in 619, the year thus being known as the "Year of Sorrow". Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one. [16] Muhammad's birthday is celebrated as a major feast throughout the Islamic world, excluding Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia where these public celebrations are discouraged. [172] He declared an amnesty for past offences, except for ten men and women who were "guilty of murder or other offences or had sparked off the war and disrupted the peace". [16], After signing the truce, Muhammad assembled an expedition against the Jewish oasis of Khaybar, known as the Battle of Khaybar. [16][100] Muhammad was forced to return to Mecca. [265] The Quran refers to Muhammad as "a mercy (rahmat) to the worlds" (Quran 21:107). It can walk in the hot desert under scorching sun for days and days … Pastoret writes that the common accusations of his immorality are unfounded: on the contrary, his law enjoins sobriety, generosity, and compassion on his followers: the "legislator of Arabia" was "a great man. [168] After this event, Muhammad sent a message to Mecca with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them. Muhammad is said to have asked for arrangements to marry both. Muhammad was proportionate, stout, firm-gripped, even of belly and chest, broad-chested and broad-shouldered. [67][68] Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to that cave, in the year 610 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and commanded Muhammad to recite verses that would be included in the Quran. With minimal casualties, Muhammad seized control of Mecca. The Meccan leaders could not agree which clan should return the Black Stone to its place. [134][135] Although the Muslim army had the advantage in early encounters, lack of discipline on the part of strategically placed archers led to a Muslim defeat; 75 Muslims were killed, including Hamza, Muhammad's uncle who became one of the best known martyrs in the Muslim tradition. Instead, a ridicule of these gods was offered. [16] Then Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants and the supporters and he chose Ali as his own brother. Among Arabic odes to Muhammad, Qasidat al-Burda ("Poem of the Mantle") by the Egyptian Sufi al-Busiri (1211–1294) is particularly well-known, and widely held to possess a healing, spiritual power. [82] Around 613, Muhammad began to preach to the public (Quran 26:214). It has shown to be dependable and sturdy animal for desert transport. Source: buzzle.com. Lol you … Muslim mystics, known as sufis, who were seeking for the inner meaning of the Quran and the inner nature of Muhammad, viewed the prophet of Islam not only as a prophet but also as a perfect human being. According to the story, this led to a general reconciliation between Muhammad and the Meccans, and the Abyssinia Muslims began to return home. [262], The Sunnah represents actions and sayings of Muhammad (preserved in reports known as Hadith) and covers a broad array of activities and beliefs ranging from religious rituals, personal hygiene, and burial of the dead to the mystical questions involving the love between humans and God. The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims; instead, they marched back to Mecca declaring victory. [16] While returning from one of these journeys (or some years earlier according to other early accounts), an accusation of adultery was made against Aisha, Muhammad's wife. He is also said to have had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him. [16] According to Shia tafsir, it refers to the appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib at the pond of Khumm as Muhammad's successor, this occurring a few days later when Muslims were returning from Mecca to Medina. After the holy Qur'an, the sayings of the Prophet … But he insisted that slave owners treat their slaves well and stressed the virtue of freeing slaves. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem." [297] Watt and Bernard Lewis argue that viewing Muhammad as a self-seeking impostor makes it impossible to understand Islam's development. [121][122][123] Muhammad and his followers saw the victory as confirmation of their faith[16] and Muhammad ascribed the victory to the assistance of an invisible host of angels. With the exception of Aisha, Muhammad only married widows and divorced women or captives. Muhammed (ﷺ) that was his name People were misguided and that’s when he came. (For the Muslim faithful, it must surely be a source of embarrassment that Allah evidently had more interest in Muhammad's personal sex life than he did in tolerance or universal love, which are … [109] The delegation from Medina pledged themselves and their fellow-citizens to accept Muhammad into their community and physically protect him as one of themselves. He also upheld the sacredness of four lunar months in each year. "[294], Recent writers such as William Montgomery Watt and Richard Bell dismiss the idea that Muhammad deliberately deceived his followers, arguing that Muhammad "was absolutely sincere and acted in complete good faith"[295] and Muhammad's readiness to endure hardship for his cause, with what seemed to be no rational basis for hope, shows his sincerity. [61], Little is known of Muhammad during his later youth as available information is fragmented, making it difficult to separate history from legend. [202] Similar events took place in 1925, when the Saudi militias retook—and this time managed to keep—the city. [151] Ahmad argues that only some of the tribe were killed, while some of the fighters were merely enslaved. Nemoy is sourcing Ahmad's, Kister, "The Massacre of the Banu Quraiza", Harold Wayne Ballard, Donald N. Penny, W. Glenn Jonas (2002), p. 163, Ibn Ishaq (translated by Guillaume, A. He addressed the issue of inheritance by forbidding false claims of paternity or of a client relationship to the deceased and forbade his followers to leave their wealth to a testamentary heir. Muhammad was deeply distressed upon receiving his first revelations. Tabari, Volume 9, Page 131; Tabari, Volume 7, Page 7, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya recorded the list of some names of Muhammad's female-slaves in, "A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims" chapter ", Ann Goldman, Richard Hain, Stephen Liben (2006), p. 212, Tolan, John. Medina was a large flourishing agricultural settlement, while Mecca was an important financial center for many surrounding tribes. [129] According to al-Waqidi, after Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy spoke for them, Muhammad refrained from executing them and commanded that they be exiled from Medina. Muhammad's denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba. They decided to ask the next man who comes through the gate to make that decision; that man was the 35-year-old Muhammad. "[287] Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his Social Contract (1762), "brushing aside hostile legends of Muhammad as a trickster and impostor, presents him as a sage legislator who wisely fused religious and political powers. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [292], Ian Almond says that German Romantic writers generally held positive views of Muhammad: "Goethe’s 'extraordinary' poet-prophet, Herder’s nation builder (...) Schlegel’s admiration for Islam as an aesthetic product, enviably authentic, radiantly holistic, played such a central role in his view of Mohammed as an exemplary world-fashioner that he even used it as a scale of judgement for the classical (the dithyramb, we are told, has to radiate pure beauty if it is to resemble 'a Koran of poetry'). At age 40 he is said to have begun receiving revelations from the angel Gabriel. [2] According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Instead they use another given name. The most common spelling is Mohamed, accounting for 39% of the Muhammad name carriers. [26] These include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the last messenger of God. In June 622, warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly slipped out of Mecca and moved his followers to Medina,[107] 450 kilometres (280 miles) north of Mecca. [38][39], In pre-Islamic Arabia, gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, their spirits being associated with sacred trees, stones, springs and wells. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had three sons and four daughters. [94][95][96][97] Later, the incident received some acceptance among certain groups, though strong objections to it continued onwards past the tenth century. At about the same time Muhammad contracted an engagement with 'A'ishah, the six-year-old daughter of Abu Bakr, and married her shortly after his arrival at Medina. [102] Ibn Ishaq, author of the first biography of Muhammad, presents the event as a spiritual experience; later historians, such as Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir, present it as a physical journey. A few learned circles of Middle Ages Europe – primarily Latin-literate scholars – had access to fairly extensive biographical material about Muhammad. [248], Nine of Muhammad's wives survived him. Children Names Of Prophet Muhammad PBUH you will find in this article, he had 7 children from 2 of his wives Khadija (RA) and Maria (RA). [34] Muslim scholars on the other hand typically place a greater emphasis on the hadith literature instead of the biographical literature, since hadiths maintain a verifiable chain of transmission (isnad); the lack of such a chain for the biographical literature makes it less verifiable in their eyes. 4–5, "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world. [109] The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the Battle of Bu'ath in which all clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal concept of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases. This article is about the Islamic prophet. The attack had failed to achieve their aim of completely destroying the Muslims. Sein Vater ʿAbdallāh starb wahrscheinlich vor Mohammeds Geburt um das Jahr 570. [46], During the early years of Muhammad's life, the Quraysh tribe to which he belonged became a dominant force in western Arabia. Being alarmed at the departure, according to tradition, the Meccans plotted to assassinate Muhammad. After returning home, Muhammad was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian cousin, Waraka ibn Nawfal. [114], Following the emigration, the people of Mecca seized property of Muslim emigrants to Medina. [18] Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, Muhammad's friend and collaborator. This placed Muhammad in danger; the withdrawal of clan protection implied that blood revenge for his killing would not be exacted. His hair was neither curly nor lank. In the order of birth sequence, the children of Prophet Muhammad … Stories of Muhammad's life, his intercession and of his miracles have permeated popular Muslim thought and poetry. When a French teacher was beheaded in 2020 over cartoons of Muhammad, Sheikh Ali Al-Yousuf of the International Union of Muslim Scholars stated that it was "not a serious crime." [46] In line with broader trends of the ancient world, the region witnessed a decline in the practice of polytheistic cults and a growing interest in a more spiritual form of religion. 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