Images copyright The Natural History Museum. The ventral margin of the centrum of Cd26 is reconstructed. CD, caudal vertebrae; CV, cervical vertebrae; D, dorsal vertebrae. Most, but not all, features you are required to know are shown on the following pages. The transverse cross-section in the dorsal half of the spine becomes more symmetrical and is elliptical. Pl10 is rhomboidal in outline, with straight anteroventral, anterodorsal, posterodorsal and posteroventral margins that are separated from each other by a distinct break in slope. The neural arch appears to have shifted slightly posteriorly relative to the centrum so that it is set back from the anterior articular facet (Fig 10C and 10D). 2005–2009), a problem not considered by those authors. The frame for the skeletal mount was constructed by B. Sisson and his team (Fossilogic). It is transversely thickest in the centre of the plate and tapers anteriorly and posteriorly, merging with the plate margins. The tuberculum is a more distinct finger-like process with a clear concavity separating it from the dorsal margin of the capitulum, a condition that is similar to that of Dr1. midventral plane of contact between two halves of pelvic girdle. Skeleton from the La Brea tar pits at the George C. Page Museum:. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. A, anterior, B, posterior, C, left lateral, D, right lateral, E, ventral and F, dorsal view. A, anterior, B, posterior, C, left lateral, D, right lateral, E, ventral and F, dorsal view. 1. It is not possible to tell if the spine is complete dorsally due to poor preservation, but there is no indication that the tip was bifid. Deformation has resulted in the left lateral surface being anteroposteriorly convex, while the right lateral surface is correspondingly concave. In lateral view the neural arch has increased in height relative to preceding dorsals, caused primarily by extension of the neural arch pedicles and dorsal extension of the portion of the neural arch bearing the diapophyses and postzygapophyses (Fig 21C and 21D). The anteroposteriorly extending ridge on the lateral surface of the centrum has continued to move dorsally so that in Cd32 it is located close to the presumed location of the neurocentral suture. In lateral view the distal end of the chevron is curved posteriorly. Both Dr9 are essentially complete and are almost identical to Dr8. The capitulum projects dorsally, is transversely compressed and is not thickened transversely relative to the body of the rib, in contrast to the cervical rib (Cr) 3. This earlier study documented the presence of longitudinally orientated primary osteons and some secondary osteons within the bone cortex, and femoral cross-sections revealed five lines of arrested growth (LAGs) and the absence of an external fundamental system (EFS). In medial view a ridge extends ventrally from capitulum a short distance. The dorsal margin of the bone overhangs the posterior surface and the posterior part of the articular surface for the phalanges extends onto the ventral part of the posterior surface. A, anterior, B, posterior, C, left lateral, D, right lateral, E, ventral and F, dorsal view. The lateral margins of the spine are therefore concave in anterior view, as in the anterior caudals of Loricatosaurus (MHNH(BR) 001; [32]: pl. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g033. The atlas is a U-shaped ring: the neural arches do not meet dorsally and are not fused to each other (Fig 5A and 5B). It is similar to D12 except in the following ways. Yes Thirteen dermal plates, from the cervical and anterior dorsal region, were recovered with Dacentrurus sp. A prominent ridge extends from the ventral margin of the postzygapophyses to the dorsal margin of the neural canal. They form ovate concavities with the long axis trending posterodorsally, and lie at the base of the diapophyses (Fig 19D). Nevertheless, most aspects of the anatomy can be determined by combining information from both elements. The anterior margin of the diapophysis is gently excavated forming a shallow trough that extends laterally. The Early Triassic non‐mammaliaform epicynodont Galesaurus planiceps formed an important part of ecosystems following the Permo‐Triassic Mass Extinction, the greatest mass extinction in Phanerozoic history. Prezygapophyses are stout processes that project dorsally from the anterolateral margins of the neural canal. No carpal elements or metacarpals were recovered. A phalanx and two unguals are also preserved (Fig 76S–76Z; i-iv). The right tibia is better preserved than the left, as it is less crushed, though both elements have suffered some degree of damage. [2] considered that these represented 10 cervicals and 17 dorsals, although expressed uncertainty about his assignments to the cervical and dorsal column. The dorsal and anterior margins of the coracoid are transversely thin, but the bone expands in transverse thickness posteroventrally to form the coracoid contribution to the glenoid fossa. Posterior to the peduncles, the shaft of the ischium is flat laterally and tapers posteroventrally. On the left side, the rib has a badly damaged capitulum, and the proximal ends of both tuberculum and capitulum are reconstructed. Both lateral surfaces of the atlas possess small irregular rugosities, which are asymmetrically positioned in anterior view and lie adjacent to the neurocentral suture. Human Anatomy - Skeleton Click on the labels below to find out more about your skeleton. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g024. The surface linking the capitulum and tuberculum is concave and faces slightly dorsally in anterior view. Pubis. This ridge gives the shaft an ‘L’-shaped cross-section. It is very similar to Cv5–7, differing only in the following respects. Progressing along the cervical column, the shafts of the cervical ribs reduce in length proportionately, while the tuberculum becomes increasingly elongate. The body or centrum of each vertebra forms the primary mechanical support of the vertebral (spinal) column. It is transversely compressed, and expands slightly at its apex. The anterior articular surface is flat with a slight central concavity, while the posterior articular surface is concave. Although it was probably never as prominent as the medial process, the anteroposterior width of this process has probably been reduced by anteroposterior compression and crushing, especially proximally. Distally, the shaft of the ulna is sub-rectangular, parallel-sided and flat to gently transversely concave (Fig 68B). D6 has suffered some crushing of the centrum that has produced an artificial groove on the left-hand side. A distinct notch is present on the anterior margin of the medial surface. D9 is similar to the preceding vertebrae in most respects. 267 , … In all other respects it is the same as Cd25, except that the dorsal part of the neural spine is transversely compressed and not expanded. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g019. Download Citation | Postcranial Skeleton | This chapter describes the postcranial skeleton of primates. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g010. Metatarsals 2–4 are preserved on both sides, although the left metatarsals are not as well preserved as those on the right.

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